While the starter relay in your vehicle may appear small, its role is undeniably vital in the engine’s ignition process. This little electrical component has a big job – it redirects power from the battery to the starter solenoid, which then kickstarts the engine’s rotation.
What is a Starter Relay ?
A starter relay can be thought of as an electrically operated bridge or switch in your vehicle’s electrical system. Its primary function is to act as a circuit breaker, connecting the car’s battery to the starter motor.
This relay is essentially a high-current switch responsible for supplying the necessary electricity to kickstart your car’s engine. Its operation is typically controlled by the ignition switch circuit.
Here’s how it works: When you turn the ignition key, a small amount of electricity flows from the battery to the starter relay coil. This coil functions as an electromagnet, serving as an actuator for the relay.
When activated, the relay takes on the role of a bridge, allowing a significantly larger amount of electricity to flow from the battery to the starter motor. This surge of power sets the starter motor in motion, which, in turn, starts the engine, and your vehicle springs to life.
What happens when a starter relay is bad ?
When a starter relay goes bad, it fails to perform its essential function of closing the circuit to provide electrical current to the starter motor.
As a result, when you turn the ignition key, the vehicle won’t start. Even if the car’s battery is in good condition, a faulty starter relay could be one of the reasons why the car won’t crank at all.
Signs of a Bad Starter Relay
Here are some common symptoms of a bad starter relay:
- No Cranking at all: When you turn the key, there’s no sound, no cranking, just silence, but other systems like dashboard lights, music systems, and headlights are working fine. This complete lack of response often points to a bad starter relay.
However, there is another important component in the starter circuit, and that is the starter fuse. If the starter fuse is blown, the car may not crank at all. Look for signs of a blown starter fuse.
- Intermittent Starting Issues: Your car may start fine one day but then refuse to start the next, with no apparent reason. This inconsistency can be attributed to a faulty starter relay.
- Starter stays ON: If the starter continues to run after the engine has started, it’s a sign of a potential problem. Normally, when you release the key or stop pressing the starter button after the engine has started, the starter should disengage.
However, if the starter relay is stuck in the closed position due to a malfunction, it will stay engaged. This is an issue that should be addressed immediately, as it can potentially lead to damage and other mechanical problems in your vehicle.
- Repeated Clicks: Sometimes, when you try to start the car, you might hear a series of rapid clicks. Typically, this suggests that the battery doesn’t have enough charge to start the engine, and it’s attempting to start repeatedly.
However, if the battery is functioning normally (for example, the music system and headlights are working fine), and you still hear this repetitive clicking noise, it can be an indicator of a failing relay. This clicking noise suggests that the relay is struggling to make proper contact.
What to Do if Starter Relay is Bad ?
If your car is not starting due to a faulty starter relay, it’s crucial to address the issue and, if possible, start the car promptly. To attempt starting the car with a malfunctioning starter relay, you need to understand how to start a car with a failed starter relay. And replace the faulty starter relay as soon as possible.
Other Issues That Present Starter Circuit
When a car exhibits the symptoms mentioned above, and the relay has been checked and found to be in working order but the issue persists, it’s essential to inspect the other components of the starter circuit.
- Blown Starter Fuse: A blown starter fuse can indeed prevent the car from starting. If the starter fuse is blown, you may notice symptoms of a blown starter fuse.
- Bad Starter: A starter motor is generally a robust component, but it’s still important to be vigilant for any symptoms related to a bad starter.
- Bad Starter Solenoid: A bad starter solenoid can also cause issues with the car not starting due to problems in the starter circuit. Look for symptoms of a bad starter solenoid, such as a clicking sound when you turn the key or the engine not turning over.
How To Test a Relay ?
To diagnose the car’s failure to start caused by a malfunctioning relay, you need to ensure that a faulty relay is the root cause. To confirm the relay is functioning properly, the starter relay needs to be tested. There are different ways to test a relay.
- Swap Relay: Swapping the relay is one of the most popular and easiest ways to test it. Simply replace the suspect relay with another relay of the same rating. If this resolves the issue, then there was indeed a problem with the relay.
- Relay test with Multimeter: Testing a relay with a multimeter is a common method to diagnose relay issues. One common problem with relays is a burned-out coil. To check the relay coil, use a multimeter.
- Relay Bench Test: This test involves removing the relay from the vehicle and manually applying power to its terminals to see if it functions as expected. It’s a more thorough test than simply swapping relays and can help identify if the relay itself is the problem or if there are issues elsewhere in the circuit.
Where is the Starter Relay Located ?
The location of fuse and relay boxes can vary depending on the make and model of the vehicle. Typically, there is one fuse box located in the passenger compartment, often under the dashboard or near the driver’s side, and another fuse box located in the engine compartment. These boxes contain fuses and relays that control various electrical components in the vehicle
Within the fuse box, there is a dedicated relay for the starter circuit. Knowing how to read a car’s fuse box diagram can help you easily locate the starter relay.
Recognizing the signs of a bad starter relay is crucial for timely diagnosis and repair. Remember, a malfunctioning starter relay can mimic other problems, so it’s essential to consider all possibilities when troubleshooting. If the relay is indeed the culprit, testing it and, if necessary, replacing it can save you time, money, and the frustration of a vehicle that won’t start.